The Discovery and Function of Filaggrin

Keratohyalin granules were discovered in the mid-19th century in cells that terminally differentiate to form the outer, cornified layer of the epidermis. The first indications of the composition of these structures emerged in the 1960s from a histochemical stain for histidine, followed by radioautographic evidence of a high incidence of histidine incorporation into newly synthesized proteins in cells containing the granules. Research during the next three decades revealed the structure and function of a major protein in these granules, which was initially called the ‘histidine-rich protein’. Steinert and Dale named the protein ‘filaggrin’ in 1981 because of its ability to aggregate keratin intermediate filaments. The human gene for the precursor, ‘profilaggrin,’ was reported in 1991 to encode 10, 11 or 12 nearly identical repeats.
Remarkably, the mouse and rat genes encode up to 20 repeats. The lifetime of filaggrin is the time required for keratinocytes in the granular layer to move into the inner cornified layer. During this transition, filaggrin facilitates the collapse of corneocytes into ‘building blocks’ that become an impermeable surface barrier. The subsequent degradation of filaggrin is as remarkable as its synthesis, and the end-products aid in maintaining moisture in the cornified layer.
It was apparent that ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis were associated with the absence of this protein. McLean’s team in 2006 identified the cause of these diseases by discovering loss-of-function mutations in the profilaggrin gene, which led to dysfunction of the surface barrier. This story illustrates the complexity in maintaining a healthy, functional epidermis.

Polymorphisms of the filaggrin gene are associated with atopic dermatitis in the Caucasian population of Central Russia

Association of the filaggrin (FLG) gene with atopic dermatitis (AD) in Caucasians from Central Russia was studied in the sample of 700 patients and 612 controls. In total ten SNPs of the gene (rs61816761, rs12130219, rs77199844, rs558269137, rs4363385, rs12144049, rs471144, rs6661961, rs10888499, rs3126085), their haplotypes and interlocus interactions were analyzed using logistic regression. The functional effects of the AD risk candidate loci and their proxies (136 SNPs) were evaluated by in silico analysis. All analyzed SNPs were associated with AD: two SNPs (rs3126085 and rs12144049) manifested the independent association, nine SNPs were associated within 30 haplotypes, and seven SNPs showed interlocus interaction effects within ten most significant epistatic models. Alleles A rs3126085 and C rs12144049 were associated with a higher risk of AD according to the allelic (ORs being 1.75, pperm=0.002 and 1.45, pperm=0.011 respectively), additive (ORs being 1.69, pperm=0.004 and 1.47, pperm=0.011 respectively) and dominant (ORs being 1.79, pperm=0.004 and 1.63, pperm=0.005 respectively) genetic models.
Three haplotypes, GT[rs3126085-rs12144049] (OR=0.60), GGT[rs61816761-rs3126085-rs12144049] (OR=0.59), and AWGGT[rs12130219-rs558269137-rs61816761-rs3126085-rs12144049] (OR=0.63) demonstrated the protective effect (pperm=0.001). The in silico analysis suggested that the AD risk variants and their proxies apparently produce various effects on 38 genes in various tissue/organs (including 20 genes in the skin). The biological process enrichment analyses suggest that the target AD candidate genes influence the formation of the cornified envelope, keratinization and cornification, and more than twenty other pathways related to skin development, programmed cell death, and regulation of water loss via skin.

Topical Application of Galgeunhwanggeumhwangryeon-Tang Recovers Skin-Lipid Barrier and Ameliorates Inflammation via Filaggrin-Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin-Interleukin 4 Pathway

Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of Galgeunhwanggeumhwangryeon-tang (GGRT) on the skin barrier integrity and inflammation in an atopic dermatitis-like animal model. Materials and Methods: The model was established using lipid barrier elimination (LBE) in BALB/c mice. Ceramide 3B, a control drug, and GGRT were applied to the skin of LBE mice. Gross observation and histological examination were combined with measurement of skin score, trans-epidermal water loss, and pH.
The expression of filaggrin, kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7), protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) was examined. Results: The effect of GGRT on atopic dermatitis was estimated in silico using two individual gene sets of human atopic dermatitis. In animal experiments, GGRT treatment reduced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms, as confirmed via gross and histological observations, skin score, pH change, and trans-epidermal water loss.
The expression level of filaggrin increased in the skin of GGRT-treated mice compared to that in the LBE group. The expression levels of KLK7, PAR2, TSLP, and IL-4 were decreased in GGRT-treated mice skin compared to those in LBE mice. Conclusions: We demonstrated that GGRT restored the skin barrier and reduced inflammatory reactions in a murine model of atopic dermatitis.

The Pathogenesis of Eosinophilic Asthma: A Positive Feedback Mechanism That Promotes Th2 Immune Response via Filaggrin Deficiency

Eosinophilic asthma (EA) is a common subtype of asthma and often progresses to severe disease. In order to understand its pathogenesis, targeted next-generation gene sequencing was performed on 77 Chinese EA patients and 431 Chinese healthy controls to obtain differential genomic variations. Among the 41 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) screened for mutation sites in more than 3 patients, filaggrin gene FLG rs192116923 T>G and FLG rs75235053 C>G were newly found to be associated with EA patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) (P <0.001) and severe EA (P=0.032), respectively. Filaggrin has been shown to be mainly expressed in epithelial cells and plays an important role in formation of an effective skin barrier. Bioinformatic analysis indicated FLG rs192116923 T>G may increase the binding of Smad3 to transmit TGF-β1 signaling, and thereby inhibit filaggrin expression, and FLG rs75235053 C>G may add new splicing sites to reduce filaggrin monomers. It has been known that the level of Th2 cytokine IL-4 is increased in EA patients, and IL-4 increases airway epithelial permeability and enhances inflammatory response through some unclear mechanisms.
To figure out whether filaggrin is involved in immune responses in asthma, we have treated human respiratory epithelial cell line BEAS-2B cells with IL-4 and found that the expression levels of filaggrin and E-cadherin decreased significantly in a time and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that IL-4 increased airway epithelial permeability by reducing filaggrin and adhesion molecule. In addition, in our study, IL-4 increased the expression of epithel-derived inflammatory cytokines IL-33 and TSLP which further enhanced the Th2 inflammatory response.

Human Filaggrin (FLG)

1-CSB-YP008712HU Cusabio
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  • 234.00 EUR
  • 1508.00 EUR
  • 642.00 EUR
  • 1009.00 EUR
  • 291.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug

Recombinant Filaggrin (FLG)

4-RPJ103Hu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 816.80 EUR
  • 322.00 EUR
  • 2788.00 EUR
  • 996.00 EUR
  • 1892.00 EUR
  • 610.00 EUR
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  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
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  • 5 mg

Recombinant Filaggrin (FLG)

4-RPJ103Mu01 Cloud-Clone
  • 530.08 EUR
  • 245.00 EUR
  • 1712.80 EUR
  • 637.60 EUR
  • 1175.20 EUR
  • 418.00 EUR
  • 4132.00 EUR
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
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  • 5 mg

Human Filaggrin (FLG)

1-CSB-BP008712HU Cusabio
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  • 332.00 EUR
  • 2170.00 EUR
  • 1135.00 EUR
  • 1579.00 EUR
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  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
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Human Filaggrin (FLG)

1-CSB-EP008712HU Cusabio
  • 380.00 EUR
  • 214.00 EUR
  • 1309.00 EUR
  • 560.00 EUR
  • 873.00 EUR
  • 262.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
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Filaggrin (FLG) Antibody

20-abx109789 Abbexa
  • 411.00 EUR
  • 1845.00 EUR
  • 599.00 EUR
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  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
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Filaggrin (FLG) Antibody

20-abx339302 Abbexa
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  • 100 ul
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Filaggrin (FLG) Antibody

20-abx339766 Abbexa
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Filaggrin Blocking Peptide

20-abx161621 Abbexa
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Filaggrin (FLG) Antibody

20-abx176473 Abbexa
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  • 1 mg
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Filaggrin (FLG) Antibody

20-abx172440 Abbexa
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Filaggrin (FLG) Antibody

20-abx100249 Abbexa
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  • 1205.00 EUR
  • 578.00 EUR
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  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
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Filaggrin (FLG) Antibody

20-abx100250 Abbexa
  • 439.00 EUR
  • 133.00 EUR
  • 1233.00 EUR
  • 592.00 EUR
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  • 100 ug
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Filaggrin (FLG) Antibody

20-abx133148 Abbexa
  • 300.00 EUR
  • 439.00 EUR
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  • 100 ul
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Human Filaggrin ELISA kit

E01F0028-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR

Human Filaggrin ELISA kit

E01F0028-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR

Human Filaggrin ELISA kit

E01F0028-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR

Mouse Filaggrin ELISA kit

E03F0028-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR

Mouse Filaggrin ELISA kit

E03F0028-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR
To investigate the role of filaggrin in development of EA, knockdown filaggrin with siRNA revealed a decrease in E-cadherin levels, which were further down-regulated by IL-4 stimulation. Knockdown of filaggrin alone did not affect the levels of IL-33 and TSLP, but further exacerbated the decrease of IL-33/TSLP caused by IL-4, suggesting that filaggrin may involve in IL-4R signaling pathway to regulate the level of IL-33/TSLP. In conclusion, in the Th2 cytokine milieu of asthma, FLG deficient mutation in airway epithelial cells may increase the epithelial permeability and the expression of IL-33/TSLP which positively feedback the Th2 inflammation response.